Whenever I say that I make web & mobile Apps accessible for the disability groups, the first question some of the educated developers who understand accessibility ask me is, what browsers you test your APP’s on & which screen readers do you use? This is a very interesting question because, there are a wide variety of browsers & screen readers that are available in the market. Testing with every screen reader on every browser is not feasible if not impossible.
- Chrome (Windows OS and Android)
- Firefox (Windows OS and Android)
- Safari (OSx and IOS)
Popular Screen Readers
- JAWS (Job Access with Speech)
- NVDA (Non-Visual Desktop Access)
- Voiceover (OSx and IOS)
- Talkback (Android)
According to Wikipedia, Chrome holds the majority share for the browser market followed by Safari. These stats are true for both desktop & mobile. According to WebAIM screen reader survey9 conducted in 2021, Chrome stands first followed by Microsoft Edge & in 3rd place is Firefox. Definitely assistive technology users prefer Chrome and Edge over Firefox for their day to day activities. When it comes to IOS & OSx Safari is the most popular browser and on Android, Chrome holds a good position.
|Browser||# of Respondents||% of Respondents|
According to WebAIM Screen reader survey we can clearly see from the below table that JAWS works great on Chrome followed by NVDA with Chrome. I personally prefer JAWS with Chrome and JAWS with Firefox. During my day to day accessibility testing I use NVDA with Chrome & sometimes I also use NVDA with Firefox to see if any ARIA or HTML5 attribute is not being supported by the browser or the screen reader.
|Screen Reader & Browser||# of Respondents||% of Respondents|
|JAWS with Chrome||500||32.5%|
|NVDA with Chrome||246||16.0%|
|JAWS with Edge||194||12.6%|
|NVDA with Firefox||149||9.7%|
|JAWS with Firefox||74||4.8%|
|VoiceOver with Safari||72||4.7%|
|NVDA with Edge||55||3.6%|
|ZoomText/Fusion with Chrome||33||2.1%|
|JAWS with Internet Explorer||30||1.9%|
|VoiceOver with Chrome||24||1.6%|
|ZoomText/Fusion with Edge||18||1.2%|
At my work place we follow testing on Chrome with NVDA screen reader & if we encounter any bugs related to either screen reader or the browser, we immediately raise the bugs with the vendor.
Besides, there are other factors too that attribute to the AT testing conundrum. Firstly, the support for HTML attributes and ARIA attributes by the browser vendors vary a lot. The same is true when we talk of the screen readers too. Not every attribute is supported by all the screen readers.
Secondly, testing with all browsers VS screen readers is a costly affair as it consumes a lot of resources, time and money too.
So let’s answer the question, which screen reader should I use for accessibility testing? In my opinion & my experience, this is the matrix that I have come up with and now for your view:
- NVDA and Jaws with Chrome on Windows
- Voiceover with Safari on IOS & OSx
- Talkback with Chrome on Android
If you have written a clean code that is semantic & follows all W3C Standards then testing on these platforms will suffice. Most of the HTML5 & WAI-ARIA attributes are supported on all these platforms. If something doesn’t work, then cross testing on a different browser/platform can determine if it is a browser or screen reader bug.
Hope this is helpful! Any views & opinions can be shared in comments section.
Note: This article has been updated in 2023 to include the latest results from the WebAIM Screen Reader Survey. Internet Explorer has been phased out and Edge browser has taken its place.